Building virtual Factories

This lecture will combine a theoretical with a lab based approach. After a comparatively short theoretical input on factory models in virtual reality environments, groups of students from Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science, and Physics will design and implement factory models in a virtual reality system. The largest system to be used will be a CAVE. A powerwall, 3D-Monitors, and 3D tablets will be part of the lecture as well. Application of glasses for augmented reality applications will also be included. The virtual factory models will include material flow, machine tools, and measurement machines as well as single processes. The laboratory work in the CAVE will take place in Davis and Kaiserslautern, where identical systems are available


Features in virtual Manufacturing Systems

The concept of a "factory-level feature" in virtual manufacturing systems is aimed at identifying specific combinations of circumstances and occurrences relating to the overall flow of material throughout a virtual factory model. The classical approach is to consider data from individual sensors or material flow metrics via e.g. thresholding, or Boolean combinations thereof, as features. However, it is not scalable to the factory level due to the large number of such metrics in a model. Here, techniques for the analysis of high-dimensional spaces created by a large number of individual measurements must be developed (e.g. using projection and other dimensionality-reduction techniques). Corresponding analysis tools will combine such methods with appropriate interaction methodologies to allow user-guided specification and evaluation of factory-level features that scales to an entire virtual factory model.


Manufacturing Technologies

Macro, micro, and nano cutting

Within this IRTG, cutting technologies are investigated in depth. In order to bring all participants to a similar level of knowledge in this area, this lecture addresses metal cutting from macro to micro cutting, and molecular and atomistic effects in nano cutting. In the lecture fundamental knowledge of chip formation and material removal mechanisms in the cutting zone (shear, deformation, ploughing, etc.) will be taught. A particular focus will be on the thermal aspects (formation of heat in chip formation, influence of heat and heat flow) and the effects of cooling to be able to define boundary conditions when modeling and simulating processes. The knowledge on the manufacturing processes and tools will be complemented by an introduction to the machine tools which are used for cutting technologies.

Non-conventional manufacturing technologies

A significant part of this IRTG is devoted to the investigation of so-called non-conventional manufacturing technologies such as EDM, ECM, plasma sintering, spraying, and coating. The in-depth understanding of these manufacturing technologies is typically not part of a manufacturing engineering curriculum. However, their importance and application is raising continuously. Therefore, in this lecture the participants of this IRTG will learn about non-conventional manufacturing technologies, their physical characteristics, their process parameters, and the machine tools used. Finally, applications will be explained and elaborated on.


Lecture line physical modeling

Innovative Finite Element Simulations

The basics of the finite element method (FEM) are presented by use of weak forms. Different strategies to include constitutive relations are discussed. Special attention is given to large deformations and inelastic materials. For the particle finite element method (PFEM) the focus is on meshing procedures and geometric features, such as the alpha shape method. The implementation of time dependent problems is illustrated by the example of a dynamic phase field model of fracture. The energetic foundation of the phase field method of fracture is discussed with regard to the classical fracture mechanical concepts of Griffith.

Molecular Modeling

Molecular modeling and simulation approaches are introduced on the basis of statistical mechanics. In particular, the lecture covers Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation methods related to entropic quantities, fluid phase equilibria, and interfacial phenomena. It is also discussed how intermolecular interactions influence the local structure on the molecular level, and how equations of state can benefit from this knowledge. In a computer laboratory, the participants implement algorithms from the lecture and apply them to representative test cases.